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Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali v. State of Maharashtra – OBC reservation cannot exceed 50 percent

Introduction : This case of Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali v. State of Maharashtra came before the Supreme Court of India. The judgement for this case was given by three justices namely A.M. Khanwilkar, Indu Malhotra and Ajay Rastogi. The date of the judgement is 04/03/2021. In this present case, Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali is the Petitioner and the State of Maharashtra and ors. is the Appellant. This judgement mainly deals with Section 12(2)(c) of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads & Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961. Court : Supreme Court of India Date of judgement : 04/03/2021 Judges : 1. A.M. Khanwilkar 2. Indu Malhotra 3. Ajay Rastogi Parties : Petitioner : Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali Appellant : State of Maharashtra and ors. Citation : LL 2021 SC 132 Background of the Case : This case of Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali v. State of Maharashtra & ors. is related to the decision given in the case of K. Krishna Murthy v. UOI. The case judgement of K. Krishna Murthy v. UOI is referred in this case. This case revolves around the issue of identifying the backward classes for the purpose of reservation. The Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act of 1961 and the Constitution of India play an important role in this case. The facts and issues are closely related to this said Act and the Constitution of India. Legal Provisions involved in this case : (i) Section 12(2)(c) of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961. (ii) Article 243-D(6), Article 243-T(6) and Article 340 of the Constitution of India. Article 14 and Article 16 of the Indian Constitution are also involved in this case. Facts of the Case : This case has its roots in the decision given in the case of K.Krishna Murthy v. UOI. In K.Krishna Murthy v. UOI, it was held that the provisions of the Constitution such as 243-D(6) and 243-T(6) did not provide any guidance on how to identify the backward classes. Article 243-D(6) of the Constitution of India reads as follows : “ Nothing in this Part shall prevent the Legislature of a state from making any provision for reservation of seats in any Panchayat or offices of chairpersons in the Panchayats at any level in favour of backward class of citizens.” Article 243-T(6) of the Constitution of India reads as follows: “ Nothing in this part shall prevent the Legislature of a State from making any provision for reservation of seats in any Municipality or offices of chairpersons in the Municipalities in favour of backward class of citizens.” The Writ Petitions in this case of Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali v. State of Maharashtra are filed under Article 32 of the Constitution of India. These Writ Petitions seek a declaration that Section 12 (2)(c) of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act of 1961 is ultra vires. The validity of Article 14, Article 16, Articles 243-D and 243-T of the Constitution of India are questioned in this case. In addition to this, the validity of the notifications dated 27/07/2018 and 14/02/2020 issued by the State Election Commission of Maharashtra providing for reservation exceeding 50 percent in respect of Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis of districts Washim, Akola, Nagpur and Bhandara have been questioned in this case, and it has been prayed in these Writ Petitions that the same be quashed and set aside. The Court in the referred judgement of K.Krishna Murthy v. UOI, observed that the state legislature must ensure that in no case the aggregate vertical reservation in respect of SC/ST/OBC taken together should exceed 50 percent of the seats in the concerned local bodies. The Court also observed in the referred judgement that exercise and disproportionate reservations given by the state legislation may be subject to challenges before the Court, but it is not justified to strike down Articles 243-D(6) and 243-T(6) of the Indian Constitution. The Supreme Court also held that identification of backward classes for reservation is completely an executive function, and this must be carried out in accordance with Article 340 of the Constitution of India. Article 340(1) reads as follows: “(1) The President may by order appoint a commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any state to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition and as to the grants that should be made for the purpose by the Union or any state and the conditions subject to which such grants should be made, and the order appointing such commission shall define the procedure to be followed by the Commission.” Article 340(2) reads as follows: “(2) A Commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the President a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper.” It was also stated by the Court that social and economic backwardness does not correspond with political backwardness. The Court also observed that there is no constitutional guidance regarding the amount of reservation for backward classes in local self government. But, however the upper ceiling is 50 percent, this is with respect to vertical reservations, i.e. when SC,ST and OBC are taken together. The 50 percent upper ceiling limit must not be crossed by the State Governments. The Maharashtra Government has provided for reservation exceeding 50 percent in respect of Zilla Parishad and Panchayat Samitis of districts Washim, Akola, Nagpur and Bhandara. Several Writ Petitions were filled in the Bombay High Court, after filing such petitions, the Government promised reforms. But no changes occurred to the percentage of reservation. Hence, this petition was filed before the Supreme Court of India. Issues raised in this case : As per the dictum in the decision of K.Krishna Murthy & Ors. v. Union of India & Anr., is it not open to the respondents to reserve more than 50 percent seats in the local bodies by providing reservation for SC / ST / OBC or does the stated decision say it is permissible to reserve seats for OBCs to the extent permissible in the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 ? Whether in exceptional situations, the reservation for SCs/ STs/ OBCs in the concerned local bodies (Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis) could exceed even 50 percent of the total seats ? Whether the decision referred in this case recognizes that it is permissible to reserve seats to OBCs to the extent permissible in the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961 ? Analyses of the case : The Supreme Court of India said that a triple test is mandatory, to be complied by the State : (I) To set up a dedicated Commission to conduct rigorous empirical inquiry into the nature of backwardness. (II) To specify the proportion of reservation to be provisioned so as to not fall foul of overbreadth. (III) Such reservation shall not exceed aggregate of 50 percent of total seats reserved in favour of SC/ST/OBCs together. The present case in hand is based on a petition challenging Section 12 (2)(c) of the Maharashtra Zilla Parishads and Panchayat Samitis Act, 1961, which provided for 27 percent reservation to OBCs in the local bodies. The Petition also challenges the notification of Maharashtra State Election Commission which provided reservation exceeding the upper ceiling limit of 50 percent. The judgement of K.Krishna Murthy v. UOI was referred by both the parties in this case. However, the State of Maharashtra did not comply with this judgement. The Court held that social and economic backwardness does not coincide with political backwardness. The Court stated that the barriers limiting access to education and employment are very different than those to political parties. This stand of the Court is highly appreciable. Conclusion : The judgement delivered in this case of Vikas Kishan Rao Gawali v. State of Maharashtra is a landmark judgement. The important provisions in law relating to reservations are well discussed in this judgement. This judgement has a huge impact on the society. This judgement is very clear and concise. This judgement will surely help in the progress of the society. Author : L.R.CHOZHAN

A comprehensive evaluation of male and female rape legislations : What are the key differences ?

Introduction: Rape is an unlawful sexual intercourse, often without the consent of the victim. Rape is a global issue. To address this global issue, rape legislations are made. Since both men and women can be raped, male and female rape legislations are made to protect men and women from sexual offenses. The following article is an evaluation of male and female rape legislations; the key differences between them are also explained in this article. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Male and Female Rape Legislations : Meaning of Rape : Rape can be said to be a type of sexual assault, which generally involves sexual intercourse or any other form of sexual penetration. Rape is carried out without consent. In rape, the victim is forced to have sexual intercourse with the rapist. Rape may be carried out by the rapist using some physical forces, rape sometimes may occur due to the misuse of authority. Rape may occur when the victim is unconscious or at a time when the victim is incapable of giving a consent, the incapability may arise due to some inherent intellectual disability. A person who is below the legal age of consent, i.e., one who cannot give a valid consent may also be subjected to rape. The act of rape is unlawful. It is a crime. The rapist will be severely punished for his offence. The rapist is severely punished to prevent such offences in the future. The victim may be a male or a female. The rapist may be a male or a female. Rape is not gender specific, hence the rape victim may also be a man too. Male and Female Rape Legislations in India : In India, rape is female centric. In India it is considered that only a woman can become a rape victim and not a man. There are many myths revolving around the concept of rape in India. Men are considered to be strong and women are considered to be powerless and weak in India, hence only women are considered to be rape victims and not men. In Indian Law, men can only be rapists and not rape victims. This is also proved by the manner in which law operates in India. If we talk of criminal law in India, the Indian Penal Code (I.P.C.) and the Criminal Procedure Code are very important. The Indian Penal Code or the I.P.C. reiterate the myths of the Indian society, by considering men to be strong and women to be weak. The definition of rape is given under Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860. The Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code of 1860 states that : ‘Rape is committed when a man has sexual intercourse with a woman under certain circumstances falling under any of the following six descriptions: (i) Against her will; (ii) Without her consent; (iii) When the consent is obtained by threatening to kill or hurt her or someone whom the woman cares about; (iv) Obtaining consent from her by deceit; by making her believe that the man has been lawfully married to her; (v) By obtaining the consent, when she is of unsound mind or when she is in a state of intoxication or when given any substance to her which affects her mental capacity to decide the nature and consequences of her consent. (vi) With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age. It has also been stated in this section that ‘penetration is sufficient to constitute the sexual intercourse necessary to the offence of rape. If we take Section 375 of the Indian Penal Code, it explicitly states that rape can happen only to a woman, i.e., she will be the rape victim in all the cases and men on the other hand will be rapists. Hence Section 375 of the I.P.C. is completely a Female Rape Legislation and not a Male Rape Legislation. Section 375 can be said to be a Female Rape Legislation as it focuses only on the rape of women and not on the rape of men by other men or women. Hence, Section 375 of the I.P.C. is very narrow in nature in the sense that it only covers female rape. Section 376 of the Indian Penal Code gives the punishment for rape. This section provides justice only to females. This section provides relief to the female rape victims. Hence both Section 375 and 376 do not provide protection to male rape victims. Protection of Men from Sexual Offences : Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code is the only provision which protects men from sexual offences. According to Section 377, the Offender can be a man or a woman. Either a man or a woman can be held guilty of forced carnal intercourse; an important point to be noted in this Section is that the carnal intercourse must be against the order of nature. The punishment given for violators under this section is severe. But anyway, forced intercourse with a man cannot amount to rape. Hence, this section offers only some amount of protection to men against sexual offences. Section 377 earlier had even criminalized consensual sex between people who belong to the same gender, but now consensual sex between two people of the same gender is decriminalized. (Source : Universal’s The Indian Penal Code,1860) POCSO Act : All children, irrespective of their gender must be protected from sexual offences, this is the main objective of the POCSO Act. Hence, this POCSO Act protects children irrespective of their gender, hence this Act is gender neutral. If this gender neutrality is extended to all the rape legislations in India, then gender equality will be reached in the field of law. Marital Rape : Marital rape can also be called as spousal rape. It is the act of sexual intercourse with one’s spouse without the spouse’s consent. The absence of consent is an essential element. Marital rape need not involve physical violence. Marital rape is considered as a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse. Marital Rape according to I.P.C. : Section 375 of the I.P.C. which defines the act of rape, gives an exception that ‘sexual intercourse by a man with his own wife, the wife not being under fifteen years of age, is not rape’. Thus it becomes clear that marital rape of a woman above the age of fifteen years is not an offence and hence not punishable. This section is in favor of men, it shows men’s dominance over women. This is an improper provision under the female rape legislation in India. According to the I.P.C., the husband can be criminally prosecuted for an offence of marital rape only under the following circumstances : (i) When the wife is below the age of 12 years, this offence is punishable with an imprisonment of either description for a term which shall not be less than 7 years but which may extend to life or for a term extending up to a period of 10 years and the offender shall also be liable to fine. (ii) When the wife is between 12 to 15 years of age; this offence is punishable with an imprisonment of up to 2 years or fine or both. (iii) Rape of a judicially separated wife, this kind of offence is punishable with an imprisonment of up to 2 years and fine. Thus marital rape is not criminalized in India. This is a big flaw in the female rape legislation in India. This flaw in the female rape legislation is entirely violative of the fundamental rights guaranteed under Article 14 and Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. This type of female rape legislation denies equality to women, as they are forced to be under the authority of males. Marital rape according to the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 : The Domestic Violence Act of 2005 in India regards marital rape as a form of domestic violence and this act provides for a lesser jail term than nonmarital rapes. This Act provides certain civil remedies to women for the violence against them which includes marital rape. Some of the civil remedies guaranteed by this Act are fine and protection. However, criminal proceedings cannot be instituted against the offender, under this Act. The Indian Evidence Act of 1872 and Rape : Section 114 (a)of the Indian Evidence Act of 1872 deals with the ‘presumption as to absence of consent in certain prosecutions for rape’. This Section 114 (a) gives a compulsory statutory presumption, i.e. this section says that the courts should presume or shall presume that the consent is absent if such a claim is made by the female victim. According to this section, if sexual intercourse by the accused is proved and whether that intercourse occurred without the consent of the woman who says that she has been raped. If the woman states in her evidence before the Court that she did not consent to the intercourse, then the court shall presume that she did not consent. This section gives the thought that a woman can never defame herself relating to her own virginity. This section is in favor of women. Men are not covered under this section. No section in the Indian Evidence Act speaks about the rape of men. (Source : Indian Evidence Act, 1872, Eastern Book Company) The Countries of the World and the Legislations relating to Male and Female Rape: The countries of the world in general, earlier made rape laws which were only applicable to female rape victims. The earlier rape laws were gender specific, relating only to women. Marital rape was not considered as an offence in earlier times. In some countries, even rapists are set free if they marry the victim. But currently, laws in almost all countries are undergoing certain changes relating to rape. Some developed countries in the world recognize male rape, i.e. men raped by men or women and have brought gender neutrality to rape laws. In some countries, such as the U.K., Marital rape is illegal and punishable under law. But even today, certain countries in the world such as Afghanistan, Algeria, China, etc. did not criminalize marital rape. Certain countries such as India does not have a male rape legislation, which protects men from sexual offences. But laws are undergoing changes due to the changing society, hence there is hope in the future that these countries will also make male rape legislations and bring gender neutrality to rape laws. The Key Differences between Male and Female Rape Legislations : (i) Female Rape Legislations were made much earlier, compared to Male Rape Legislations, as male rape is a new concept to law. (ii) Female Rape Legislations are more in number when compared to Male Rape Legislations, hence women are well protected from sexual offences than men. (iii) Female Rape Legislations are effectively used often as more number of females report their victimization. On the other hand, Male Rape Legislations are not effectively used as many males do not report their victimization as their masculinity is being questioned. (iv) Female Rape Legislations undergo more changes and developments as more cases are being reported under it. Male Rape Legislations are comparatively static since less number of cases are reported under it. (v) There is more awareness to the general public regarding certain provisions in the Female Rape Legislations, on the other hand, there is less awareness regarding the provisions in the Male Rape Legislations, since male rape is still a taboo topic. (vi) In countries like India, there are no Male Rape Legislations, as there are many myths in the society regarding masculinity. On the other hand, India has many Female Rape Legislations, as the society believes that women are weaker and less powerfull. Thus certain myths are the reason for the vast difference between male and female rape legislations, i.e. more female rape legislations and no male rape legislations. (vii) Lastly, more attention is given to the proper functioning of Female Rape Legislations than Male Rape Legislations since the number of female victims are greater than the male victims. These are some of the key differences between the male and female rape legislations. Conclusion : It must be understood by legislators that both men and women can be raped. Hence gender neutrality must be brought to rape legislations. India still doesn’t have a Male Rape Legislation. Authored by : L.R. CHOZHAN

Business Law: New ways for laws to support innovation

Business is a form of occupation, which help individual to earn their livelihood. Law means an official rule of a country or state. In simple word law means rules and regulation. Business law is the set of rules and regulation which are form to manage and govern business. Business laws is the law which governs business, commerce and industries. In simple word we can say that Business laws are the laws which are used to govern to smooth running of business. In general terms, there are five types of laws- Civil law, criminal law, common law and statutory law. Business laws is the part of civil law which deals with both the issues, private law issues and public law issues. What is private laws and public laws? Private law- private law is a part of law which deals with the relation between individuals. Public law-public laws deals with the relation between individuals and the state Business laws is also known as commercial law, it is the body of law which governs business, commerce and industries. In simple word commerce means buying and selling of goods and services in a manner that an indivisible earn money. Business is a form of occupation or we can say that sale and purchase of goods and services to make profit. There are many types of businesses, some of them discuss below- Sole proprietorship – it is a business organization which is owned, managed and controlled by an an individual. In this form of business all the profit and risk bearer are only one. Sole means only and proprietor means owner. Therefore, sole proprietorship is the one who is the only owner of the business. In this form of business there is no separate law to govern it. In some cases one may require license. In the eyes of law there is no difference between in the owner of the sole proprietorship and business. Owner is the one who is responsible for the activities of the business. Partnership – partnership is a form of business between two or more person. According to Indian Partnership act 1932 partnership defines as a relation between persons who have agreed to share the profit of the business carried on by all or any one of them acting for all. The partnership is governed by the Indian partnership Act 1932. Partnership come into existence by a formal legal agreement. The agreement between the partners may be oral or written. The written agreement between the partners is known as partnership deed. In the presence of partnership deed the dispute between the partners solved easily. Joint stock companies- it is a business organization that is jointly managed by its shareholders, the shareholders holds certain amount of stocks in the company which is represented by their shares. Apart from sole proprietorship companies is totally different. Companies are the artificial person. It means in the eye of law it is an artificial legal person. It existence is not depend on any member. Members may go and come but the company exist. Any one can sue the company and sued by the company. Like natural person it cannot breathe, eat, talk, run, and sleep and so on. It is not a natural person but its right are like natural person. It is called artificial person. It has its own legal entity or separate legal entity from its members. Company used its own sign but its sign is known as seal. Every company has its own seal, any document which does not carry the common seal of the company is not binding on company. It is compulsory to incorporate companies under the company’s act 2013. Multinational companies- multinational companies in short known as MNCs. IT is a business that has operations in more than one country. If a business sells its goods and services to more than one country, it does not become an MNC multinational companies. For being a multinational companies the business has business operations in two or more countries. What innovation is? Innovation means creating new things, new ideas, new creations and many more things. Innovation is very important in succeeding in any field. For existing and growth of business innovation plays a vital role. Without new things, new creation and new ideas succeeding in any things is impossible. As we know innovation is not easy there is many challenges faced by individual to go on ceiling (position once wants). World are dynamic in nature. Every day new things are created, invented and discovered. If we don’t shift to new things from traditional things then it destroy the labor of creation, invention and discoveries and many more. Changing are the nature of life just like child born , become young enjoy his/ her life, become old and died. Government has to make laws which support innovation. With the changing of times government has to make changes in laws or Laws has to be made in such manner that support innovation. In business, there is no minimum qualification is necessary. The reward for business person is profit of business. The money or capital required to invest in the business as per the size of the business or nature of the business. Transfer of business is possible with some legal formalities. Example of businesses are shop, factory etc. The factor kept in mind before choosing the type of business: The first things to be decide in business is nature and size of business. Size of the business and scale of its operation is important factor in business. Another important factor is ownership of the business whether it is a sole proprietorship, partnership or a joint stock company. Location of the business is the main factor and play a vitol role in earning. For example, opening of stationary shop is profitable when it open near schools. If individual open stationery shop near hospital then it incur losses for the business. Financing or investing a capital in business is another important factor keeping in mind before starting any business. Capital is required for investment in fixed assets as well as current assets, fixed assets like, land, building, machinery and equipment. Current assets like raw materials, books, debts etc. apart from this there are many factor kept mind before investing in any type of business. Authored by - Surbhi Rashmi

11th National Online Quiz Competition on Indian Polity & Constitutional Law

11th National Online Quiz Competition on Indian Polity & Constitutional Law: Register by 4th September ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION Team Attorneylex is a Student-run organization, it is an online platform for law students where they can contribute their legal knowledge and get recognized for their contribution. Along with the other activities the endeavor is to deliver legal help to the sectors of society that are unable to access existing legal services due to illiteracy and poor economic conditions. ABOUT THE NATIONAL ONLINE QUIZ COMPETITION Team Attorneylex is organizing its 1th Online National Quiz Competition on Indian Polity & Constitutional Law scheduled to be held on 5th September 2021. ELIGIBILITY Team Attorneylex looks forward to participation from law aspirants, students pursuing 5-year law and 3-years law, and LLM courses. Professionals from the legal fraternity are also invited to participate in the Quiz. IMPORTANT DATES & TIMING Last date for registration: 4th September 2021, 11:59 PM Competition Date: 5th September 2021, 06:00 PM Declaration of Results: 10th September, 2021, 06:00 PM VENUE Online (Google forms) DETAILS ● The quiz competition is not a team-based competition, and thus, each student shall participate individually. ● The Quiz will consist of Indian Polity & Constitutional Law questions, including significant/landmark judgments. ● It will consist of 30 MCQs. ● The total time limit for the Quiz is 15 minutes. ● Every question carries one mark, and there will be no negative marking. REGISTRATION PROCESS: Registration Fees: Rs. 50/- (Register @Rs 40 before 23rd August(11:59 PM) Payments details Paytm/ G-pay/Phonepe- 9616696008 (Gaurav yadav) Bhim UPI- 9616696008@upi Bank details- Name- Gaurav Yadav Bank – HDFC Bank Account Number- 50100429858721 IFSC Code- HDFC0009157 Registration Link: Click here to register or, https://forms.gle/ETCdKxNLM4DxMvjRA CLICK HERE to Join our Whatsapp Group. GENERAL RULES ● The registered candidates should join our WhatsApp group for updates. ● The Quiz results will be declared on the social media platforms and the Website of the Team Attorneylex. Follow us on Instagram @teamattorneylex. ● In the case of a tie, Time will be considered (Person who submits early will be given preference). ● Team Attorneylex will not be responsible for any technical error, any connectivity/device failure during the Quiz. ● The results declared would be final and the authority vests with Team Attorneylex to change or modify the same. PERKS ● Winner: Cash prize Rs. 1000/- + Trophy+ Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the Team Attorneylex website/Journal + Online Internship opportunity with the Team Attorneylex. ● Runner up: Cash prize Rs. 500/- + Trophy + Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the Team Attorneylex website/Journal + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● 2nd Runner up: Cash prize Rs. 250/- + Trophy + Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the Team Attorneylex website/Journal + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● Top 10 Performers: Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the Team Attorneylex website/Journal + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● E – participation Certificate to all the participants + Free Article publication on the Team Attorneylex website/Journal. CONTACT DETAILS Vanshika: 07055460463 Gaurav: 09616696008 Email: contact@teamattorneylex.in Website: teamattorneylex.in Post Link: https://teamattorneylex.in/2021/08/13/11th-national-online-quiz-competition-on-indian-polity-constitutional-law-register-by-4th-september/

Difference between Kidnapping and Abduction under Indian Penal code

Firstly, I am discussing what Indian penal code which is also known as IPC in short form. It is drafted in 1834 by Lord Thomas Babington Macaulay and submitted to the Council of Governor-General of India in the year 1835. It is came into enforced in British India in 1862. Indian Penal Code have 23 chapter consist of 511 sections. Kidnapping and abduction both are a criminal offences. Indian Penal Code deals with both the offences. Kidnapping Kidnaping means taking out person without his/ her consent. Generally, kidnapping occurs with the minor child not the major or the one who have their legal guardian. In kidnaping, the age of victim is less than 16 for male and 18 for female. I am explaining kidnapping with the help of Example, ‘A’ and ‘B’ are the couple together they have 3 year old son name ‘C’. ‘A’ and ‘B’ are the legal guardian of ‘C’., ‘D’ a peon in the office of ‘A’. One day ‘C’ was playing in the park, ‘D’ take away ‘C’ for the motive of Ransomed (good amount of money). In this example, ‘C’ was the one who get kidnapped, ‘A’ and ‘B’ are their legal guardian and ‘D’ is the kidnaper, criminal or culprit. Consent is immaterial in kidnapping. If a kidnaper take the defense that he kidnapped a child with his/ her consent, it is not considerable in the court. Section 359, section 360 and section 361 of Indian Penal code deals with kidnapping. According to Section 359 of IPC, Kidnapping is of two types · Kidnapping from India · Kidnapping from lawful guardianship. Section 360 of Indian Penal Code deals with Kidnapping from India. Whoever conveys any person beyond the limits of India without the consent of that person, or of some person legally authorized to consent on behalf of that person, is said to kidnap that person from India. Section 361 of Indian penal code deals with Kidnapping from lawful guardianship. Lawful guardian means legally permitted to take care and protect of the minor or person of unsound mind (unsound mind means a person is incapable of deterring good or bad) Reasons for kidnapping There are so many reason for kidnapping, the most important reason for kidnapping is money, ransom. Human trafficking and beggars are also the important reason of kidnapping. Sometime criminal kidnaps children and sell them for home servant, work for illegal factory. Especially girls were kidnaped for the work of prostitution. Kidnappers kidnaped people for the motive of organ transplantation, forced labor etc. Section 363A of IPC taking about Kidnapping of a Minor for the purpose of begging Report says that the number of people who are trapped in kidnaping or abduction are mainly women, children and rarely young men. Punishment for kidnapping Punishment of kidnapping under Indian Penal code is Imprisonment up to 7 years and shall also be liable for fine. Abduction Taking away person by force without his/ her will is called abduction. It is committed irrespective of any age. Kidnaping is committed with minor while abduction is committed by major. I am explaining this with the help of example, ‘A’ a famous jeweler of the city. One day ‘A’ is travelling in the bus, ‘B’ came and sit near him and show his gun and ordered ‘A’ to go away with ‘B’. By means of force of ‘B’ take away ‘A’ from that particular place to another one. In this example, ‘A’ is the one who is abducted and ‘B’ is the criminal. According to Indian Penal Code, Abduction is defined under section 362. According to section 362 of Indian penal code abduction means, whoever by force compels, or by any deceitful means induces, any person to go from any place, is said to abduct that person. Abduction consist of force, deceitful and taking person from one place to another place. In simple word abduction means take away a person from one place to other by force. We can say that abduction is completed when a person go to another place from his/ her original place without his/ her consent and by the means of force. Differences between kidnapping and abduction The first and main difference between Kidnapping and abduction is based on the sections of Indian penal code. Kidnapping is defined under section 359 of Indian Pena Code while abduction is define under section 362 of Indian Penal Code. The punishment of Kidnaping is described under section 362 of Indian Penal code and the punishment of abduction is define under section 364, 365 and 366 of Indian penal Code. Kidnapping happens with the child, minor and person of unsound mind, someone who depend on their parents or legal guardian. In kidnapping consent of the person is immaterial because he/ she is the minor but in abduction consent is very important, if someone abducted a person with his/ her consent then the person who abducted is not committed any offence (if a person is removed from one place to another with free consent then it is not an offence). In kidnapping the role of guardianship is very important, without guardian a person cannot be kidnapped while in abduction the role of guardian is immaterial, abduction is related to only to the person who were removed. Kidnapping is not a continuing offence while abduction is a continuing offence. The offence of kidnapping completed when a minor removed from his/ her legal guardian but abduction is continuing. Punishment for kidnapping and abduction Section 363 of Indian penal code deals with the punishment for the offence of Kidnaping. According to section 363 of Indian Penal code, whoever kidnaps any person from India or from lawful guardianship, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine. Section 364 in The Indian Penal Code amounting to murder According to section 364 of the Indian Penal code, Whoever kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be murdered or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being mur­dered, shall be punished with the imprisonment for life or rigor­ous imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine. Let’s I explain this with the help of examples - if ‘A’ kidnaps ‘B’ and sell her to ‘C’,’A’ knows that ‘C’ will kill ‘B’ after 10 days. In this circumstances ‘A’ has committed the offence. So he should get the punishment of life imprisonment which may extend upto 10 years, and also punishable for fine. Both the offences are related to others and it is necessary factor to removal of victim from his/ her original place is necessary. According to section 366 of Indian penal code, however kidnaps or abducts any woman with intent that she may be compelled, or knowing it to be likely that she will be compelled, to marry any person against her will, or in order that she may be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, or knowing it to be likely that she will be forced or seduced to illicit intercourse, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine Conclusion Kidnapping and abduction both are offence under the sections of Indian Penal Code. Both are punishable under Indian Penal Code. Both takes the freedom of person and destroy various rights like right to freedom, right to travel, right to choice and the most important right to life with dignity etc. the problem of kidnapping and abduction is not related to singe person or single community, it is the problem of whole society or country. Section 359 to 369 of Indian Penal code deals with kidnapping and abduction and their punishment. If the whole society decides to fight against the culprit of kidnapping and abduction the kidnappers must have to gone somewhere else for his/ her business. We cannot completely destroy the business of kidnapping or abduction but at least we try to reduce it. If we find any victim of these offences we can help them. We can identify the victim by our awareness and responsible behavior towards countries peoples For example, we can identify them by seeing the condition of the victim, is she living with his employer, she is living in poor conditions. Is she is living with multiple people in cramped space, fear to speak to individual etc. As a responsible human being it is our duty toward society to make it kidnapping and abduction free and we will do it by giving us our full energy. Author - Surbhi Rashmi (Lloyd Law College)

4th INTERNATIONAL ARTICLE WRITING COMPETITION BY LAWTSAPP & HI-R EDUCATION - Register Now

ABOUT LAWTSAPP Changes are often difficult but always done to bolster the society, it’s important to stop for a while and anatomize. Lawtsapp.com is an extensive portal registered with Government of India, MSME endeavors to provide detailed and credible writing/news in the socio-legal realm, and trying to create a space for first-generation law students. ABOUT HI-R EDUACTION Hi-R Education is founded by Ms. Tosin Murana in the year 2017. Ms. Tosin is LSE law graduate & Incoming trainee lawyer. Hi-R education has assisted students from around the world to receive offers from the UK's leading universities. They have also assisted scores of students with obtaining work experience and/or graduate roles with world-leading corporations. ABOUT THE COMPETITION Writing of Articles is one of the simplest yet sophisticated ways\ to acknowledge one’s ideas, knowledge and perspective towards the issues. The National Article Writing Competition is being organized to advocate the views of intellects on varied aspects of day-to-day life. While pursuing our goals, we commit to partnering with the most public so as to ensure their best interests are served and it will also improve the creation and dissemination of research skill. The Competition is open to every student enrolled in any UG or PG Programe. TOPICS Emerging Data Privacy Laws: Challenges and Perspectives. Is technology being effectively used for disaster management in emerging countries? Civil Society and its contribution towards rights of women Social Media Manipulation to Undermine Democracy Censorship or Certification: How to Regulate OTT Platforms International Human Rights: Access to medicine in a Covid-19 world ELIGIBILITY The Competition is open for all students pursuing/ completed Undergraduate Law and/or Post Graduate Law courses in any recognized University/College across the country. Co-authorship is only permitted for this essay competition up to 1 co-author. REGISTRATION Please register yourself by submitting this Google Form by filling out necessary details. Registration fees: Rs. 200 (Single Author), Rs. 370 (Co-Author) REGISTRATION FORM https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdoBPPex3fbKBtL8zXWt1xAmT6OYM2EY3kOaI1q9DAXSeUTNQ/viewform?usp=pp_url PAYMENT Paytm: 8577000000
Google pay: 8577000000 IMPORTANT DATES Last Date of Registration: 14.09.2021 Last Date of Submission: 17.09.2021 Note: No submission will be accepted after the last date of submission i.e., 17.09.2021 midnight. SUBMISSIONS GUIDELINES The participants are required to made their submission at content.lawtsapp@gmail.com The file must be in .doc/.docx format. Language of the Article should be in English. The body of the submission must be in the format as specified. [Font: Times New Roman, Size:12, Line-Spacing: 1.5, Justified]. Submission must contain footnotes, wherever required. All footnotes must be in the format as specified. [Font: Times New Roman, Size: 10, Line-Spacing: 1.0, Justified]. The word limit for the articles is 1500-2000 words, exclusive of footnotes. An article can be co-authored by a maximum of two participants. The file name of the submission must be as follows: a. In case of Single Author – ‘<first name><last name>’ e.g. Maya Kashyap.docx b. In case of Co-authors – ‘<first name of Author 1> & <first name of Author 2>’ e.g, Maya & Raj.docx. Submissions with a similarity percentage above 15 percent will be automatically rejected and the respective participants would not be eligible for receiving e-certificates of participation. The Cover page of the submission must include the following information: Title of Article Name of the Author(s) Name of the Institution Mail Id Non-compliance with either of the guidelines mentioned above will result in immediate rejection of submission. No queries in this regard shall be entertained. PERKS Top 10 articles will be published on Lawtsapp.com Top 3 winners will get – Medal + Hard Copy Merit Certificate + Cash Prize Prize worth 10,000 K. Certificate of Merit to the Winners. Certificate of Appreciation to the best researcher in regards to the article. Certificate of Publication for those whose article will be published. Certificate of participation will be given to all. Internship opportunity with Advocates. For further queries mail at lawtsapp@gmail.com or contact at: 9313172199.

Call for Paper- On AI, Law and Policy: National and International Perspectives

[Call for Papers] On AI, Law and Policy: National and International Perspectives for a book to be Published by a Reputed Publisher [Submit Abstract by 15 September 2021] Concept Note of the Book AI has now penetrated almost every aspect of our lives. There is an urgent need to monitor and regulate the use of AI. AI also raises multiple ethical, moral and legal concerns which need to be understood and addressed before it's too late. Whether it is the future of the work, rights of workers, privacy concerns etc. all these areas need a detailed analysis and understanding. The way the world does business has undergone a sea change in the last few decades. Rapid globalization, rise of global supply chains and rapid, fast paced technological changes have disrupted the traditional ways of doing and handling business. Virtual meetings, seamless movement of goods and services, capital has become the new normal. Like any other major change, technological advancements are raising new challenges and concerns. An urgent need is being felt to regulate it. However given its nature it is virtually impossible for a single body, whether national or international to regulate it. So both lawmakers and policymakers are struggling to match the pace of the fast changing world. The aim of the proposed book is to start a conversation in the right direction. Through this book, the editors want to contribute to the understanding of AI, its interface with different laws and how the law and policy related to AI and automation in a particular sector is shaping up, and how the stakeholders can regulate and monitor it. This book aims to deepen the understanding of the readers on various aspects of interplay of AI in different fields of law and its regulatory response. Themes & Sub- Themes AI Technologies: Age of automation AI and New Technologies AI, ML and Robotics: Automation and Ethics Basic theories of Law and Policies Regulation of AI, ML programming AI Regulatory Regime and Regulatory Authority AI Regulation in International Law AI and International Law AI Law and Policies in different parts of the world AI and International Robots and Personalities in Law Automation and Ethical dilemmas AI Technologies AI and Human Rights AI and creativity AI technologies and interplay with IP Laws AI, creativity and copyrights AI, ectypes and deepfakes AI and Moral Rights AI and Patents Law AI and Cybersecurity AI and its intersection with Cyber Laws Criminal Law and AI LegalTech and AI AI regulation and Smart Contract Use of AI technologies in Judicial institutions Predictive technologies and Judicial Process Government use of AI technologies Use of AI in surveillance v. Rights of the People AI and Future of Work About Editors Srishti Singh is currently a Doctoral Fellow at Department of International Law, United Nation’s University for Peace, Costa Rica. She has earned her LL.M in International trade law from University of Turin, Italy and has worked at Supreme Court of India & taught at a law school in India before moving to her current position. Her research interests are labor standards, international trade and business and human rights, AI and future of work. She is also currently Head, Business and Human Rights Centre, MyLawman. Abhinav K Mishra is an invited research fellow for the Japan Patent Office’s Institute of Intellectual Property, Tokyo, Japan, where he has worked on Blockchain and IP Law under a project entrusted by Japan Patent Office. Apart from this, he is Visiting lecturer at Indian Law Institute, Lloyd Law College, Sharda University and Maharishi University for Cyber and IP law. He has been delivering Expert Lectures at the Institute of Intellectual Property, Tokyo, Japan and IIT, Jodhpur. He teaches and writes on Legal Theories in IP, Digital Technology Law and Human Rights. He was Resource Person at Cell for IPR Promotion and Management under the aegis of Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Gov of India. He is an advisor and Core Committee member of Indian Society of AI and Law and Core Committee member of Global Review panel of the prestigious Massachusetts Information Technology Review. Important Dates Last Date to Submit Abstract : 15 September 2021 Last Date to Submit Final Paper : 15 December 2021 Submission Guidelines The work submitted shall be the original and unpublished work of the author. The plagiarism level must be less than 15%. Word Limit (Exclusive of Footnotes): 5000-11000 Words Citation: The Citation style should be in consonance with OSCOLA latest edition. The body of the paper shall be: Font: Times New Roman, Font Size: 12, Line Spacing: 1.5 Citations Font: Times New Roman, Font Size: 10 and Line Spacing: 1 Headings should be Bold, in Capitals, Size 14, center-aligned. Submission Procedure All submissions shall be sent through email at: ailawbook@gmail.com in Microsoft Word (.doc or.docx) format. The author must send in the cover letter in the body of the email, which must contain all the relevant details: (Name of the author(s), Designation, Name of College/University/Institution, Phone Number and Email ID). Co-Authorship is limited to two only. The decision of the Editorial Committee shall be final and binding. Publication Fees : NIL Note: The decision of the editorial board shall be final and the book shall be published by a reputed national/international publisher. For any further query, feel free to contact ailawbook@gmail.com

Call for Paper- on Human Rights & Technologies: A Road Ahead for a book- Submit Abstract by 5 Sep,21

[Call for Paper] on Human Rights & Technologies: A Road Ahead for a book, to be Published by a reputed Publisher [Submit Abstract by 5 September 2021] Concept Note of the Book Over the past few years, technology has emerged as a powerful tool in the field of human rights. Emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Blockchain, Big Data, Facial Recognition tools, Internet of Things (IoT) etc have the potential to make enormous contributions in the field of human rights. AI tools can help in gathering data on rights abuses, forensic technology can help in solving crimes etc. are only some of the benefits which the newer technologies are offering. However, along with the rapid development and its potential to benefit mankind, concerns have also been raised about its abuse or misuse. The rate at which AI is penetrating in almost all aspects of our life raises some serious questions about the future of work and protection of rights of the workers, promotion and protection of human rights viz. Privacy and digital rights among others. Similarly, while surrogacy has helped thousands to achieve their dream of becoming parents, it has also raised various human rights concerns. At this juncture, the role that law will play in this field becomes very critical. The growth of these technologies raises important questions about whether our current policies, legal systems and advocacy strategies are sufficient to mitigate the human rights risks that may result, many of which are still unknown. Multiple actors are now involved and it’s important that the field of human rights and technology is duly analyzed, understood and regulated keeping in mind the role and interest of different stakeholders and how they can be best used to promote the interest of mankind and also make advancements but without infringing human rights which the world has earned the hard way and holds dear. This edited book is a small step in this direction. We propose to analyze and simplify the complex web of technology and human rights. This book aims to start a dialogue in the right direction and seeks to both find solutions and raise new questions as we further delve into a world ruled by technology. Themes and sub themes Human-rights and Technology UNIT I — THE DIGITAL AGE Development of New Age Human Rights Concept of Equality, Sovereign, Democracy in the digital Age Concept and Theories of digital rights Emerging Concepts of Human Rights: Science, Technology and Digital Rights Next generation Human Rights UNIT II — SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND HR Issues in Development of Science and technologies Ethics, Morality in Human Rights standards age Protection and promotion of Human Rights Scientific developments and Human Rights Human Rights standards and New Technologies UNIT III — DIGITAL RIGHTS The emergence of digital rights regime Privacy Rights and Freedom National Security and freedom Human Rights in Digital world IPR and Human Rights UNIT IV — NEW TECHNOLOGY Biotech, Law and Human rights Surrogacy and human rights Blockchain Technologies and Rights Big Data and Human Rights IoT and Human Rights Human Rights in Digital space Digital Communication Technologies and Human Rights Internet Governance and Human Rights UNIT V- AI-THE NEW FRONTIER OF HUMAN RIGHTS Human Rights as a framework for regulating AI Global Governance on Automated Facial Recognition: Privacy Concerns Use of AI in Human Rights due diligence Policing in India via AI based tools: Human rights concerns Protecting Labor rights in the age of AI P.S: TOPICS SHOWN HERE ARE INDICATIVE, NOT EXHAUSTIVE. About the Editors Srishti Singh is currently a Doctoral Fellow at Department of International Law, United Nation’s University for Peace, Costa Rica. She has earned her LL.M in International trade law from University of Turin, Italy and has worked at Supreme Court of India & taught at a law school in India before moving to her current position. Her research interests are labor standards, international trade and business and human rights, AI and future of work. She is also currently Head, Business and Human Rights Centre, MyLawman. Abhinav K Mishra is an invited research fellow for the Japan Patent Office’s Institute of Intellectual Property, Tokyo, Japan, where he has worked on Blockchain and IP Law under a project entrusted by Japan Patent Office. Apart from this, he is Visiting lecturer at Indian Law Institute, Lloyd Law College, Sharda University and Maharishi University for Cyber and IP law. He has been delivering Expert Lectures at the Institute of Intellectual Property, Tokyo, Japan and IIT, Jodhpur. He teaches and writes on Legal Theories in IP, Digital Technology Law and Human Rights. He was Resource Person at Cell for IPR Promotion and Management under the aegis of Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Gov of India. He is an advisor and Core Committee member of Indian Society of AI and Law and Core Committee member of Global Review panel of the prestigious Massachusetts Information Technology Review. Submission Guidelines The work submitted shall be the original and unpublished work of the author. The plagiarism level must be less than 15%. Word Limit (Exclusive of Footnotes): 5000-11000 Words Citation: The Citation style should be in consonance with OSCOLA latest edition. The body of the paper shall be: Font: Times New Roman, Font Size: 12, Line Spacing: 1.5 Citations Font: Times New Roman, Font Size: 10 and Line Spacing: 1 Headings should be Bold, in Capitals, Size 14, center-aligned. Submission Procedure All submissions shall be sent through email at: hrtechnologybook@gmail.com in Microsoft Word (.doc or.docx) format. The author must send in the cover letter in the body of the email, which must contain all the relevant details: (Name of the author(s), Designation, Name of College/University/Institution, Phone Number and Email ID). Co-Authorship is limited to two only. The decision of the Editorial Committee shall be final and binding. Important Dates An abstract of 500 words shall be sent via email latest by 5th September 2021. The Last Date for submission of the final paper is 30th November, 2021. For any further query, feel free to email at hrtechnologybook@gmail.com Note: BOOK SHALL BE PUBLISHED BY A REPUTED INTERNATIONAL/NATIONAL PUBLISHER.

13th Online National Quiz Competition on 'IPC: Indian Penal Code, 1860'

About the quiz competition: In furtherance to the aim of revolutionizing the legal educational sector and Enthused by the success of 12 series of Online National Quiz Competition, Legis Scriptor is pleased to introduce 13th National Law Quiz Competition on ‘INDIAN PENAL CODE’. It aims to provide a unique platform to students and Law aficionados across the country to put their knowledge and quizzing instincts to test. We assure you of an experience filled with legal knowledge, excitement, and ecstasy! Important dates:- Last date of registration for the quiz: 21st August, 2021 Date of competition for Quiz on ‘IPC’: 22nd August, 2021 Time for Quiz: 5:00 PM Topic: IPC: Indian Penal Code Who Can Participate:- *The quiz is open to everyone from any stream/profession. Rules:- 1. The quiz will comprise of 20 MCQs to be attempted in 10 minutes and in one go. 2. Every question will carry equal marks & there will be no negative marking. 3. Participation as a team is not allowed. 4. The quiz will be conducted on an online platform, as decided by the organizers. 5. The registration amount shall not be refunded in any case whatsoever. 6. Any technical glitch faced by any participant shall entirely be at his responsibility and organizers owe no liability/responsibility towards the same. 7. Participants shall ensure decent internet connectivity and are advised to be online at least 30 minutes before the quiz begins. 8. Certificate of Participation will be given to all participants. 9. All certificates shall be in digital form and will be sent on the e-mail id provided in the google form. 10. The decision of the Organizers shall be final and binding in relation to any matter connected with the competition. 11. Participants are advised to check their mailboxes regularly for updates. 12. In the case of a tie, the higher rank would be determined on the basis of least time taken by the applicant. 13. The registered candidates will be added to a WhatsApp group for updates. 14. The results for the Quiz will be declared on the WhatsApp Group so made for the purpose & the official LinkedIn account of Legis Scriptor. 15. Legis Scriptor will not be responsible for any technical error in paying the registration fee for the quiz competition or any connectivity/device failure during the Quiz. 16. You will be added in the WhatsApp group one day prior to the competition. Prizes:- 1st Position– Rs 500/- + Certificate of Excellence + Opportunity of Publication in double peer reviewed journal @50% discount. 2nd Position– Certificate of Excellence + Opportunity of Publication in double peer reviewed journal @50% discount. 3rd Position– Certificate of Excellence + Opportunity of Publication in double peer reviewed journal @50% discount. 4th - 10th Position– Certificate of Merit + Opportunity of Publication in double peer reviewed journal @25% discount. *NOTE- Participation Certificate + 15% Discount on Publication for all Participants. Registration Details:- Fees- Rs. 99/- After the payment all participants need to upload screenshots of the same on Google form given below while registration. Payment Method:- PayTM no.:7703902276 Google Pay: legisscriptor-1@okicici Phone Pay: 7703902276@ybl OR pay through UPI UPI ID:7703902276@paytm How to Register:- Participants have to pay via above mentioned payment method and then register themselves through registration link given below. CLICK THE LINK BELOW TO REGISTER: https://forms.gle/4fpupF8znRQf9rTs7 Contact us for any query: E-mail:- info.legisscriptor@gmail.com WhatsApp number: - 8851264387(WHATSAPP ONLY)

10th National Article Writing Competition Organized By Team Attorneylex: Register by August 31

About the Organisation: Team Attorneylex is a Student-run organization, it is an online platform for law students where they can contribute their legal knowledge and get recognized for their contribution. Along with the other activities the endeavor is to deliver legal help to the sectors of society that are unable to access existing legal services due to illiteracy and poor economic conditions. About the Competition Team Attorneylex is organizing its 10th National Article writing competition for all those who want to show their research and writing skills and are not able to find the perfect stage; here, we are giving them a chance to show their talent. TOPIC: Any Contemporary Legal Issue. Eligibility Open For All Language: English or Hindi. The Submission Guidelines Are- ● Word Limit – 1500 – 2000 (inclusive of footnotes) ● Co-authorship is allowed (maximum two co-authors) ● All submission must be sent at submission@teamattorneylex.in ● The subject of the email should be “Submission: Article Writing Competition.” ● Write-up must be original and unpublished. ● Submissions with plagiarized content and copyright issues will be rejected out rightly. ● The decision of the judges shall be final and binding. ● Font Size -12 ● Font Style – Times New Roman ● Citation – 20th Bluebook (Endnote) The submission shall also be accompanied by another Word document consisting of a Cover Letter mentioning the Name of the Author/s; Name of the Institution/College/University; Designation; Year of Study (if applicable); Email ID. Registration Fees Single Author – 100/-( Early bird offer Rs.80, till 18 August) Two Authors – 150/- ( Early bird offer Rs.130, till 18 August) Three Authors- 200/-( Early bird offer Rs.180, till 18 August) Important Dates Last date of payment and registration: August 31 2021 Last date of submission: 11:59 PM, September 2, 2021 Declaration of Results: September 6, 2021 Prizes ● Winner: Cash prize Rs. 3000/- + Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the website + Online Internship opportunity with the Team Attorneylex. ● Runner up: Cash prize Rs. 2000/- + Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the website + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● 2nd Runner up: Cash prize Rs. 1000/- + Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the website + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● Top 10 Performers: Certificate of Merit + Free Article publication on the website + Online Internship Opportunity with Team Attorneylex. ● E – participation Certificate will be provided to all the participants. Payments details Paytm/ G-pay/Phonepe- 9616696008 (Gaurav Yadav) Bhim UPI- 9616696008@upi Bank details- Name- Gaurav Yadav Bank – HDFC Bank Account Number- 50100429858721 IFSC Code- HDFC0009157 Registration Link Click here to register, Or https://forms.gle/zKqSzsjSfsWvnL789 Website Link https://teamattorneylex.in/ If you have any queries feel free to contact Vanshika - 07055460463 Gaurav - 09616696008 Email- contact@teamattorneylex.in Post Link: https://teamattorneylex.in/2021/08/03/10th-national-article-writing-competition-organised-by-team-attorneylex-register-by-august-31/

Call for Applications- Call for Reviewer at MyLawman [Apply Soon]

About MyLawman MyLawman is one of the fastest growing Legal Community website for Legal Resource sharing and an e-learning platform for law students, legal professionals and legal academia. As a one stop solution, MyLawman caters to differential needs of Law students and professionals across different divisions viz. legal blogs, opportunities, journal, judiciary preparation and e-learning content including online courses. MyLawman is a growing family of around 250 law students as volunteers/ interns and campus ambassadors along with hundreds of law faculties on board. MyLawman partners with Law Schools, Law Firms, Domain Experts (resource persons) and NGOs working in the field of Law to build and disseminate legal knowledge to learners/legal fraternity. We at MyLawman also provide law students and persons unrestricted access to legal resources and articles of Law. About the Opportunity MyLawman is looking to expand their team of expert peer reviewers. The core team is making active steps to expand and diversify the reviewer pool to ensure that only the highest quality of research reaches publication, and to uphold the integrity of research being published. For the same, MyLawman invites reviewers who are subject experts and are willing to contribute to enhanced quality through their valuable review skills. Please Note that this post is totally honorary in nature What is Peer Review? Peer review is the foundation of academic publishing. When you are asked to review a paper that has been submitted for publication, your expertise is being acknowledged and your opinion is being valued. As a service to their authors, MyLawman tries to provide constructive feedback to help them improve their manuscripts before publication. They rely on their reviewers to share their experience and expertise so they can publish only the highest quality research. Who can Apply? Academicians Research Scholars/associates PG Students PhD Scholars Advocates/Judges LLM Students Responsibilities of the Reviewers The reviewers need to ensure the following: Maintain absolute confidentiality with regard to the content of the manuscripts and keep their identity hidden from authors. Review submitted work in an objective, responsible, impartial and timely manner. Reviewers will have to evaluate the draft on various parameters, such as relevancy of topic, comprehensiveness, original contribution to existing knowledge, language, coherence etc. Substantial similarities between submitted manuscripts and other published works of which the reviewer is aware, or any other suspected ethical misconduct to be reported to the editorial team. Provide ‘follow up’ or any other relevant advice to the editorial team, if requested. Benefits of reviewing for MyLawman Becoming involved in the peer review process for a journal can be a highly rewarding experience in and of itself. That said, there are several benefits specific to reviewing for MyLawman: § The Editorial Board will acknowledge all reviewers on our website. § A certificate of recognition. § Reviewers may be presented with the possibility to join the Editorial Board of our MyLawman Socio Legal Review journal (subject to the approval of the Editor-in-Chief). § Develop critical thinking skills essential to your own research and writing. § Advances your career – serving as a peer reviewer looks good on your CV and can make a difference when it comes to research, employment, and promotions. MyLawman Review Process The MyLawman Team works tirelessly to maintain the standards of our website. Each draft is screened thoroughly in three phases to ensure that · The content is grammatically correct · The content is related to the topic · The content is not plagiarized or copied · The content is fit for publication Important Links · For More Details, Click Here (https://www.mylawman.co.in/2021/08/call-for-application-call-for-reviewer.html) · To Apply, Click Here (https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSelCzSFsEi8ROcNQtgPDeAW2VrgkthxPKg-uzwYDyMa0pPYZA/viewform)

3rd National Level Article Writing Competition with Hard Copy of Certificates: Last Date - 20th Aug

ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION Vakeel Sahab Pro is an online Indian legal Portal founded in the year 2020, envisioned to empower the Lawyer's creed. Law is like an ocean the deeper you go, the more you realize its depth. We aim to enhance your legal knowledge and skills not only by providing a learning platform but to make use of law in forming your opinions and raising your arguments. Our startup strives to bring innovative legal events and programs for participants who are willing to stand apart from the crowd and realize their potential in uncommon ways. Being part of the legal world is about adding value to your personality and professional development. We always try to achieve what is fruitful for your Curriculum Vitae as well as self fulfillment. The usual bars to learning surrounded by orthodox methods leave no space for growth. Thus our mission should be to break the four walls of customary learning and think out of the box ways to advance our growth. ABOUT THE COMPETITION Vakeel Sahab Pro is organizing its third article writing competition where the author can speak through their words and ideology and let the world knows their thinking ideology and in this pandemic time, everyone has to increase their skills so why not by thinking and writing? TOPIC The topic should be related to law or management. ELIGIBILITY Open for everyone. SUBMISSION AND COMPETITION RULES 1. The article should be the original work of participants (20% plagiarism allowed) articles submitted will be checked for plagiarism so every participant must be expected to acknowledge the references made use of. 2. Co-Authorship up to only one allowed. 3. Language: English ONLY 4. Submission should be in doc. format. 5. Alignment - Justified 6. Two Co-authors can be from different colleges. 7. Maximum word: 2000 words and MINIMUM words: 1200 (excluding footnotes) 8. An article should have an INTRODUCTION & CONCLUSION. 9. Author/s name, the topic of the article, email id should be on the top of the document. 10. You have to mail your article to this mail id – submissions.vakeelsahabpro@gmail.com 11. SUBJECT of the mail – 3rd ARTICLE WRITING COMPETITION (NAME OF AUTHORS). 12. Line Spacing 1.5 13. Font Style = Times New Roman 14. Font Size for content - 12 15. Heading = 16 + BOLD + Underline 16. Sub heading = 14 + BOLD 17. Citations font size = 10, Times New Roman 18. End Notes are not allowed 19. NO BORDER NO COLOUR. REGISTRATION PROCEDURE All participants must register themselves by paying a nominal fee of Rs. 65/- only. In the co-authorship, they have to pay Rs. 105 per team only (means 52.5 Rs per person). NOTE: You have to pay fees first and after that fill registration form because you have to upload a screenshot of the payment. After payment please fill out this form - CLICK HERE or https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSe8O4gBe63BeI_gYQstsbMgi8V1ivkEt2K3Rku4WyeVzQ_EEw/viewform PAYMENT DETAILS You have to pay the fee by PayTm / PhonePe / GooglePay/ BHIM / AMAZON PAY only in this number: 8933948420 NOTE: Take a Screenshot after doing payment and after that, you have to upload it in the Google form. PRIZES Total 13 articles will be published on our website. - 1st Prize: 500 Rupees - 2nd Prize: 400 Rupees (+ COLLEGE AMBASSADOR POST) - 3rd Prize: COLLEGE AMBASSADOR + INTERNSHIP in Vakeel Sahab Pro in September. + Top 10 other Articles will be published on our website. (WITH HARD COPY OF PUBLICATION CERTIFICATE) - Hard Copy of Participation Certificate for every participant. IMPORTANT DATES Last date for registration and payment of fee: 20 AUGUST 2021 Last date of submission of articles: 27 AUGUST 2021 Announcement of Results: 31 AUGUST 2021 Certificates Dispatch: 07 SEPTEMBER 2021 CONTACT DETAILS Contact for any query if you have VAKEELSAHABPRO@GMAIL.COM Mobile Number: 8112457884 ( WhatsApp) Official Website – WWW.VAKEELSAHABPRO.COM Official Link - https://www.vakeelsahabpro.com/2021/06/3rd-national-level-article-writing.html Thank You