"Politics is a continuous process from birth to death."
Politics has a long history, and that history unfolded in the context of society. As the social context changes in that evolution, the various topics of power, governance, elections, political parties and leaders that are discussed with politics are also subject to transformational changes on various factors. The formation of a political party alone was not enough if the regime wanted to gain power, especially given the changing conditions in which the people exercised their right to vote. Accordingly, a number of political parties have been formed for different purposes, but those political parties have formed coalition with other political parties. It is to some extent an impediment to the exit of political parties on mere objectives, while on the other hand it can be seen as an opportunity to unite to achieve progress as a nation.
1.What is Coalition?
“A coalition is usually a temporary union between two or more groups, especially political parties for the purpose of giving more influence or power than the individual groups or parties can hope to achieve on their own”
-National Democratic Institute-
Coalition is a Latin word derived from. Coalescere is the word, co means together and alescere means go to together. But this is not a new concept and it had already developed in Europe when it started to grow in other countries including India.
In a political coalition, there are clearly two parties with different goals, but all of them have come together to achieve a common goal. Given the complexity of the political environment, it is not possible to argue that the views are equally agreeable in all respects, but there is some degree of agreement. There are three basic factors that must be taken into account when forming a political alliance. Time, money and people are among them. There are three basic factors that must be taken into account when forming a political alliance. Time, money and community are among them. Of these three factors, time is the time that affects the formation of coalition.
The following are some common factors of concern in the formation of a political coalition.
Whether there is a formal or informal relationship between the parties.
Preparation of a document stating the issues agreed upon by the parties through discussions.
Realistically determine what can be achieved under coalition through negotiations between the parties.
Acting with mutual understanding and respect, recognizing that not every matter can be satisfied on its own.
With the above features, there is a politically related triad that can be formed in connection with politics.
Coalition between two or more political parties.
Coalition between elected officials.
Coalition between political party and civil organization.
Furthermore a trinity of criteria can be identified to form a political coalition before an election.
Joint candidate, joint list
Prior to election, Different parties claim that they will govern together.
Coordination of the campaign ( Common Platform)
In order to investigate the actual functioning of the coalition in the light of the above, it is necessary to analyze this development in the context of historical context.
2.Historical development of the Coalition of Politics in India.
After India gained independence, great political power was seen under the Indian National Congress. The tendency of other political parties to form, especially on the basis of the high level of political power around it, was low. But political society is subject to change at all times. It is influenced by social factors and the social diversity of India was a strong reason for this. These are some of the key factors that led to the formation of the Coalition of Politics in India.
Social pluralism (diversity in ethnicity, religion, cultural characteristics)
Death and decline of national political parties
Establishment of parties representing regional political ideologies.
Increasing the powers of the states in practice.
But the formation of political party alliances in Indian politics began in 1977, which cannot be said to be one definite reason, but could be influenced by a number of other factors besides the reasons mentioned above. Accordingly, the coalition formed over time in India can be discussed as follows.
The First Experience of Independent India In 1977, under the leadership of Morajil Desai, the Junta Government was introduced. It was created as a non-congressional force. In 1963, Ram Manhar Lohia proposed a policy called Anti-Congresism. Opposition groups in Congress rallied together. Referred to as the cornerstone of the coalition of politics in India.
In October 1979, Mr. Charan Singh founded the Coalition of politics.
In December 1989, VP Singh formed the Coalition of Politics. Also in 1991 Chandra Shekhar formed a political coalition and later HD Deve Gowda also formed a political coalition.
In addition, the coalition of politics was formed in 1997, 1998, 1999, 2004 and 2009. It was headed by IK Gujral, AB Vajpayee and Dr. Manmohan Singh.
Based on the above factors, the multi-party system in India later developed rapidly and became incapable of forming a single party government. As per latest publication from Election Commission of India, the total number of parties registered was 2598, with 8 national parties, 52 state parties and 2538 unrecognized parties. In 2004 and 2009, the media and political parties had to form coalition governments as they could not form a government without the support of regional parties. There is no party that can claim to enjoy an absolute majority at the Indian level as a whole. An example of this is the state of Orissa, which contested the 1974 state elections but did not get a majority in Parliament.
One of the reasons for further setting the stage for the above situation is the existing quasi-federal system in India. Different political parties have been formed on the question of whether the existence of two major political parties is sufficient to represent the people in a large country. Whether in a federal state or a unitary state, the primary goal of a political party is to gain political power. It is clear that alliances are being formed for that. This is especially so in a country where the electoral system has not changed but the political party system continues to evolve. In general, the coalition was discussed at the federal level during 1998/1999 under three main sections.
Bi- partism characterized by the opposition between the INC and BJP.
Bi- partism characterized by the opposition between two state parties.
Bi- polarization structured around two coalitions.
But the Coalition of Politics is not limited to the federal states. That is to say, this situation can be seen even in unitary states like Sri Lanka. Accordingly, it is important to analyze the conditions associated with each state.
3.Analysis of comparative judicial systems
There are a number of situations that are commonly referred to as The Coalition or Labor National Coalition in Australia's federal parliament. It is as follows.
United Australia Country Independents Coalition (1940)
Tasmania, Australia :
*Liberal Green Coalition
*Labor- Greens Coalition (1989- 2010)
Australia Capital Territory:
*Liberal Independent Coalition (1998)
* Labor Green Coalition (2001-2008)
As Canada is also a federal state, many political parties were organized at the provincial level and formed coalition at various times to gain power for elections.
In 1864, the Clear Grits, the Party Bleu, and the Liberal Conservative Party formed coalition.
For the 1919 Ontario election, the United Farmers of Ontario party formed coalition with the Labour Party and other minor political parties.
The Corporative Common Wealth Federation (CCF) was formed in 1932 by the amalgamation of three other Ginger Group, Independent Labour Party and United Farmers of Alberta political parties.
The formation of the New Democratic Party (NDP) in 1961 was a combination of the Co-operation Commonwealth Federation and Canadian Labour Congress parties and is still active in Canada.
The 2010 election in Britain was marked by a protracted bipartisan crisis. That is, the question arises as to whether both the Conservative Party and the Labor Party can gain a majority. This was due to the support of the Independent Party and the Scottish National Party for other political parties.
“The taboo has been broken and whatever the electorate thinks of coalitions, they don’t actually regard the prospect of another one as a complete nightmare,”
-Tim Bale (A Politics Professor at Queen Mary University in London)-
But some argue that Britain's already strong bipartisan system is less likely to form coalition.
Although Sri Lanka is a unitary state, its diversity can be seen. Therefore, in order to enforce the political rights enshrined in the Constitution, the Sinhalese, Muslims and Tamils have formed alliances to work in the national election arena by identifying their own parties. Following a landslide victory in the 2019 Presidential Election, the Sri Lanka People's Front formed an alliance with 17 other parties with the aim of winning the 2020 Parliamentary Elections. It also managed to get the current government under 2/3 power. The Tamil National Alliance (TNA), which was started to represent the rights of the Tamil people, is now in alliance with four other parties and is committed to the cause.
Political parties in Sri Lanka are also facing some post-election crisis due to the formation of alliances with certain objectives in mind for an election. For example, the United National Party (UNP) allied with other political parties for the 2020 parliamentary elections, but after the election they were able to win only one National List seat. However, due to the lack of consensus among the parties as a result of the process of joining the alliance, some have not been appointed to the post. That is to say, the situation in Sri Lanka is such that political parties form alliances for various purposes, but its functioning is questionable.
4.Optimistic profile of the Alliteration of Politics
“Coalition often remains on tender hooks unless every partner is taken on board. No partners come on board unless given a fair share from the cake”.
-Farooq Ahmed Malik & Bilal Ahmed (Politics of Coalition in India)-
If there is an understanding of how to properly maintain the process of forming an alliance, it can be a tool for establishing democracy. Minority rights can be represented through provincial political organizations in India and ethnic political alliances in Sri Lanka. Moreover, if each political party fights separately, the impact on the national political parties will be minimal and the people will have the opportunity to participate in nationally active activities.
The Coalition of Politics is the main weapon that can influence an unpopular government. This is all the more positive because it can have that effect both before and after an election.
Although the capacity of a single political party is limited in terms of time, money and capital, it is possible for several parties or groups to come together and fight for that common goal, further strengthening their resources and helping the strategy to achieve that goal.
An alliance formed by a combination of political parties or groups has a number of alternative views, but the most appropriate view can be determined through a number of majority opinions, all of which can be discussed together.
Through a political alliance, more and more representatives will have the opportunity to join the active political system, which will also lead to a better future political system. It can be suggested that this is a more appropriate methodology for empowering young leaders.
According to Lord Actin, "Power corrupts man. Excessive power corrupts man." Prevents the unification of power to one person or party through a political alliance, which is a reason to create a good political culture in a country.
5.Disadvantages of creating a Coalition of Politics
“The aim of any political system is to set the stage for the realization of human political life. Even a political alliance should exist for that purpose and not for the purpose of gaining power.”
The Coalition of Politics is emerging as a trend in the modern world, but its true purpose is not clear. Therefore, trying to achieve one's goals on different goals makes the original purpose meaningless. This background can be seen in Asian political culture, so it is doubtful what the outcome will be in the end.
The intended purpose of establishing the Coalition of Politics before an election will continue even after the election, but some breakdowns and clashes between the parties are likely to intensify criticism of each other after the election.
The decision-making process in the Coalition of Politics is extremely complex. For example, there may be conflicting opinions and suggestions about the tactics of organizing an election campaign, so we need to think broadly about how to bring them all together.
External parties may come forward to provide funding and resources for the Coalition of Politics. Instead of relying on it to achieve their common goal, they have to give more importance to each person's personal captivity. Finally, there is a high tendency for the people to pursue other goals in the name of political rights.
In the creation of the Coalition of Politics, the authority of the powerful parties has to be subordinated to that of the other parties. It is therefore questionable whether there is a real potential to represent minorities.
Politics is a more complex context. It is not enough to discuss its basic features only theoretically, it is also important to examine them in practice. In that practical context, the critical background of the Coalition of Politics can be both positive and negative. But the onus is on each team to use it progressively. That is, if every decision is aimed at empowering the rights of the people, it will be successful and the philosophical background expected from politics will be confirmed. This situation is likely to become more complicated in the future, and efforts should be made to use the Coalition of Politics in a more progressive approach.
Sujan Semaka De Silva