International Security and Effects of Cyber Law
International Security and Effects of Cyber Law
Even though International Security is a relatively new term in International relations it holds one of the most important elements in shaping the lives of people today. “Security” as a phenomenon has been addressed by the world in the post-cold war period. It is identified that there are three ways as to how the term security is being used; the first is, being safe, protected and secure. Second are the political actions and the analytics and conceptualising. There are various kinds of security risks in the world today and one of the latest developments in this is the cybersecurity risks. Due to the fast-paced world and globalisation, cybersecurity risks are one of the most dangerous and unfortunately there are no laws in place to protect people from the same.
Cyber as a word was initially used in the 1950s as ‘Cybernetics’, which is a science of understanding machines and animals, It was later understood as ‘computerized’. Later in the 1990s, the term cyberspace came into being, which is believed to be an undefined area where people conduct electronic activities. Today the term cyber is popularly used for security matters. A cyber-attack is said to scale upon us with the help of cyberspace. One such major creation is the Silk Road which is an online platform that uses digital currencies for illegal trade, money laundering and sale of drugs. These threats majorly exist for three reasons: 1) flaws in the design of the internet, 2) flaws in hardware and software and 3) the movie to put more critical systems online (Fortson, 2020).
Why is it necessary to stop cyber threats?
Development of the internet remains to be one of the biggest blessings and also the major threat in this millennium. One of the major threats that we face today is a data breach, to blackmail or manipulate decisions. Cyber threats from infiltrators on infrastructure and data breaches to phishing and cyberespionage, there are various types of cyber threats and they do not show any bias while targeting their next victim, it could be a multinational corporation, federal government or an individual. The next victim of these attacks could be any of us and we wouldn’t even realise it until the damage is done. Cyber-attacks are capable of causing electrical blackouts, breach of national security and a failure of military equipment. Cyber threats are never stagnant and are becoming more potent every day; there is a new generation of zero-day threats that are able to surprise as they carry no detectable signals. There is another trend in advanced persistent threats (ATP’s), which is a way for the hacker to be persistent in the system without being traced even by updates of rebooting. Even though cyber securities are blind to the eye, we shouldn’t be surprised if one says it could affect a person lifestyle.
From where & why do cyberattacks occur?
There are various cyber attackers for various reasons, the usual aim of cyber-attacks is to disrupt, distort and deteriorate (Moore, 2020). Disruption occurs when there is an over-reliance on the fragile connections which can be easy to hijack and may bring the trade to its knees. Distortion is when there is an intentional spread of misinformation which would then lead to the solidity of data to be compromised. When we look as to from where the cyber-attacks come from, the primary ones are hostile nation-states, terrorist groups, organized crime organisations, hacktivist, disgruntled insiders, hacker, natural disasters and accidental actions of authorized users (Tunggal, 2020). Government-sponsored cyber-attacks pose major threats compared to others as a state would have more resources technology and tools against each other, classified networks and critical infrastructure can be harmed with the use of cyberspace. Terrorists also pose a high threat level as people joining terrorist groups in the future may have more knowledge with regards to cyber-attacks. Corporate spies may engage in the same to steal trade secrets and weak their competitors. Hacktivists usually are the less damaging hackers as they aim at spreading their political agenda than demolishing the infrastructure.
Incidents of cyberwar
There have been a few instances where cyberspace has been brutally infringed that cybersecurity has become the epitome of priorities that need to be resolved. In May 1999 the website of US Whitehouse has been attacked and it has remained shut for three days, this occurred due to the accidental bombing in the Chinese embassy in Belgrade (Hunker, 2010). Russian and Estonian governmental organizations were subject to three weeks of cyber-attacks in 2007 (Hunker, 2010). In 2009, Georgia was under attack prior to the kinetic military action in with Russia and against Kyrgyzstan. China and Russia have denied all sorts of links to these occurrences, it was later realized that this occurred from a system in Brooklyn, New York (Hunker, 2010). Also, a devious attack has occurred in a complex in Syria, reportedly with North Korean workers in it. It was reportedly a nuclear weapons plant being built and was bombed undetected by Israel jets by surpassing the air defence networks of Syria through Cyberattacks (Hunker, 2010). This growing trend of high threat in cyberspace is making all the countries vulnerable and the need for cybersecurity law is also growing.
National Cybersecurity strategies
The NCCs are a new phenomenon that emerged in the US in 2003; it was one of the first countries to recognize the importance of cybersecurity. As of late the extent of basically all cybersecurity techniques have extended from securing people and associations to ensuring society in general, which is an aftereffect of expanding dependence of all parts of our life on ICT. Practically all NCSS underscore the reception of a coordinated and far-reaching approach and the significance of open private cooperation intending to cybersecurity dangers. Numerous cybersecurity episodes unmistakably exhibit that without end-users receiving fundamental. PC security cleanliness rules they will keep on being exceptionally defenceless against future cyber-attacks. Given the worldwide idea of the Internet, the international element of national cybersecurity and upgraded international cooperation is one of the needs in numerous NCSS. Concurring on the internationally acknowledged principles of conduct in cyberspace may be troublesome, be that as it may, even between close partners.
As mentioned above, cybersecurity issues have many faces, it can occur by various means for various reasons. And if we look at the current situation regarding international security with relations to cyber laws, they still remain to be very vague and it needs a lot of development in the future. Security Council, EU and other international bodies need to solidify doctrines and treaties regarding this. If a fast action has not been taken regarding this issue it could unleash unknown disasters unto the world. A clear set of rules and guidelines need to be established on state-sponsored hacking and only ethical hacking should be permitted. Giving a person the ability to sit in a room and damage the world would be the biggest setback in this ever-growing digital world. We may need to consider the fact that there is a fat chance in future endeavours where World War III is caused by Cyberwar and issues in protecting our cyberspace.
Authored by: Tanya Sahay