Welcome to 2020, a world where nothing is impossible, not even men delivering babies. today men and women have reached heights of equality together. But are they really equal? Or is there a vicissitude waiting?
Domestic violence is any behaviour the purpose of which is to gain power and control over a spouse or partner, though not in particular. it can also be imbalance of mental state of mind sometimes, leading to abuse of another. Abuse can be of any form, physical, emotional, harassment or sexual.
The definition above is not an exclusive definition. It is a major example of what causes the difference between the 2 genders. Not Surprisingly INDIA has been ranked 2nd in the index of domestic violence cases 1st being south Africa.
Getting into the roots directly, every 3rd woman in India is a victim of domestic violence. Not only wives but also daughters and other females living under the same roof are the victims of domestic violence. These women after being severely suppressed by the male community find it extremely difficult to move out of their homes and work for themselves. Although you might say this is irrelevant owing to the modern concepts of feminism and equality, but the entire concept of feminism revolves around the intellectual commitment to seek justice for inequality based on sex. Hitting women, making them feel weak and worthless, demoralising them and treating them as a” property” simply eliminates equality and growth for women.
The present paper deals with the various forms of domestic violence prevalent in India. Their causes and variation in the intensity of the forms have also been addressed. The aftereffects of different kinds of domestic violence and the possible remedies have been highlighted. Finally, a conclusion has been drawn after the complete analysis of the topic with the juxtaposition of facts and figures at hand.
Different forms of domestic violence in India
Discrimination with women in India began even before they were born and has continued for decades now. A lot many women have even died under the same roof where they were tortured for a lifetime.the report of UNICEF on progress of nations which was released jointly by India and UNICEF said more than 60 million women who have been alive today are reportedly missing. The forms of violence are the major cause.theseforms can be –
1.Feticide: female feticide in India is abortion of female foetus using methods that may or maynot be legal. The killing of the foetus inside mother’s womb has been the practise since years. It is practised with the view point that the birth of a girl child is a liability and the birth of a boy child would bring prestige and respect to the family. These traditional norms are the reason pregnant females are forced to harm themselves or else are harmed by other members of her family into abortion. Regardless of the mental and physical abuse it causes to a mother, the practise is still relevant in rural as well as some urban areas across the nation
2.Infanticide: over thousands of girls who are born every day in India, find their homes in dustbins, dump yards, doorstep of anonymousfamilies, rivers etc. even if they are taken home by their parents, they end up being malnutrition in their infancy itself. The crime rate of infanticide in India is increasing every day.
3.Physical assault/rape/molestation/harassment:According to a Report, there are reported cases of one rape every 54 minutes, a molestation every 26 minutes; and an act of cruelty every 33 minutes. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) statistic says – every 20 minutes, a woman is raped somewhere in India, not to mention the countless number of cases of molestations or rapes going unreported due to the fear of being socially highlighted. Child rape cases have increased by 336% in the last 10 years. These statistics are only based on the report generated out of cases that have come up in courts and does not include women who have been murdered/raped even before they could ever reach out to any authority.
4.Dowry death:the concept of dowry death is most prevalent in India. The rate is also quite alarming.the demand of gifts and jewellery at the time of the marriage from the father of bride is dowry and if not satisfied the new family harasses the bride and beat her violently. It is mentioned in pick under sec.304-B in detail.
5.Victims of materialistic-culture - domestic violence and physical assaults on women have been the major cause of violence and of course the focus of this study. Millions of girls live under threat of physical abuse, be it in their homes or outside. Be it by their fathers or mothers. domestic violence is a crime but the criminal does not have a fixed gender. However, the most aggravated form of violence is generally caused by men and therefore it is most of the times in India that we find men are the ones who use force against a girl/women/child/old lady. And not vice versa.
Domestic violence against women
Domestic violence by definition refers to any act of gender based violence that results in or is likely to result in causing physical/sexual/psychological/emotional harm to a woman.including threats of such acts. Violence against women shall be understood as Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation.
The shameful act committed by the males is often under the kept underground so that nobody gets to know that she has suffered moreover also to make sure that she never raises a voice against the wrongdoer. In changing times however, we see a rise i.e. a ray of sun shine in shape of the non-profit organisations and governmental institutions that are coming up for help of such women. not only they promise justice to such kind but also provide them with emotional/financial support to lead a better life. Although the results are still quite uncertain and no doubt there is more need to reduce the crime rates by controlling/punishing the wrongdoers, but the initiative of protection of women from such in-house criminal psyche men is more of a concern at the centre owing to the situations of this era.
Victims of materialistic-culture in INDIA
Victim feminism is a term used in the 1990s by some mainstream and libertarian feminists to equate their perceptions of feminism with other feminists who see it as promoting the perception that women are vulnerable or lack autonomy and need to be protected as a result. "It has become more used among sociologists to describe a similar manifestation of feminism in the 2010s, as opposed to other dominant moral cultures such as the "culture of honour" and the "culture of integrity," especially on college campuses in the US, part of a rising moral "culture of victimhood.
This collection reflects on the artefacts women create, the photographs they keep, the rituals they use or are responsible for and the spaces they occupy and build through tradition and custom, exploring the persuasive and sometimes poignant link between women and the material culture of death.
This collection examines the material habits of women, including wearing grieving clothing, dressing the deceased, sewing memorial samplers, creating skull frames, collecting funeral services, collecting and researching diseased bodies, producing and collecting taxidermies, and making sculptures honouring the dead, as well as the affective responses and emotional work of women that define their aspirations. From family members and associates to public figures, the often unseen activity involved in commemorating and building histories and memorials for the deceased draws attention to the role women play as remembrance keepers for families, local communities and the country.
The Convention on the Abolition of All Kinds of Violence against Women and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights have been ratified by India, all of which guarantee that women are granted equal rights as men and are not subject to discrimination of any kind. Women are also promised substantive justice by the Constitution of India. Article 15 of the Constitution states that discrimination against persons on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth, or on grounds of any disability, responsibility or limitation thereof, shall be forbidden. Paragraph 3 of Article 15 grants the government the authority to make specific laws for women and girls. The Safety of Women against Domestic Abuse Act was passed in 2005 to exercise this jurisdiction.